Monday, January 27, 2020

Examining The Features Of The OPNET Information Technology Essay

Examining The Features Of The OPNET Information Technology Essay OPNET (Optimized Network Engineering Tools) is a huge software having possibilities to simulate large area networks with various protocols. It was basically developed for military usage but it has grown unexpectedly large to become a leading commercial simulation tool for networks. It is expensive software to buy but its free licenses are available for educational usage. It is a network simulation tool that allows the definition of a network topology, the nodes, and the links that go towards making up a network. The processes that may happen in a particular node can be user defined, as can the properties of the transmission links. A simulation can then be executed, and the results analyzed for any network element in the simulated network [1]. 4.2 Features of OPNET: With this engineering system different communication networks can be simulated with detailed protocol modeling and having options of performance analysis. The features of Opnet includes simulation kernel, object based modeling and graphical specification of models. Different predefined node models are available in Opnet libraries which can be used by simply importing and enabling the desired functions. OPNET has the feature to build different models, to run and execute different simulations and one can set different parameters to see the desired output. OPNET is simulation tool that operates at packet level, it can simulate a wireless network as well. In OPNET all the simulations are in a hierarchy, each level of the hierarchy shows what is going on at that particular level of the model that is simulated. It has the feature to debug the simulation if an error has occurred. The major three tools of OPNET are modeling tool, Simulation and Execution tool and Result Analysis tool. Any network can be analyzed and implemented by using these three tools of OPNET. 4.3 The Model Development Tool: The model development tools consist of the Network Editor Node Editor Process Editor 4.3.1 Network Editor: Physical topology of a network is created in network editor by defining nodes and links between them. There are three main types of nodes fixed, mobile and satellite. These nodes can be modified as per the usage. Simplex or Duplex links can be used for communication between these nodes. Here at network level links can also be customized to simulate the channels of communication. For broadcasting to multiple devices attached a bus link can be used. One can create a subnet to avoid complexity created by a large number of nodes. 4.3.2 Node Editor: The Node Editor is used to place the models of the nodes used into the network. A node can contains modules like Processors, Queues, Sink, Point to Point Transmitter and Receiver, Bus transmitter and receiver, Radio transmitter and receiver and external system modules. They can be connected through packet streams and statistic lines [2]. Figure: 4.1 (Node Model) In this figure different processers are used to create the complete node model, blue links are of packet stream, red links are static wires and orange links are logical Tx/Rx Associations. 4.3.3 Process Editor: Behavior of process model is specified with process editor. The Process Editor is used to define the processes that run inside the modules of node model. The processes are designed using State Transition Diagrams and the codes are written in Proto-C [2]. Figure: 4.2 (Process Model) Pointing arrow in the figure shows initial state, the green color of the state indicates that it is forced while red is for unforced state, the arrow headed lines indicate transition between states. Upper half is Enter Executive and lower half is Exit Executive of state. 33/0 shows the number of lines of code written in Enter/Exit Executive of state. The code is shown in the figure below. Proto C is used to write codes in Enter Executive, Exit Executive and Transition Executives. The code written in Enter Executive is executed when module is entering a state, the code written in Exit Executive is executed when module is leaving a state and in response to an event transition executive code is executed. 4.4 Model design: In OPNET, models are created in a hierarchy, here network level is at the top followed by node level, which in order is made from the process level. Network editor, Node editor and Process Editors are used to implement network level, node level and process level design respectively. At top there is network level which may or may not contains subnets, further in these subnets there may be more subnets. This is how OPNET represents hierarchical structure of a network. Packet generation, reception, error checking, forwarding it to other processes is done at node level. State transition diagrams with codes written in Proto-C are used to define processes which can be modified by the user to create a process of own usage at process level. 4.5 Running a simulation: After defining all the models of the network system, we can run a simulation in order to study system performance and behavior using the simulation execution tools described earlier. To change simulation behavior OPNET provides various options to make changes including internal and external execution, changes can also be made to configure attributes for changing simulations behavior. It also supports running of simulation independently from OPNET graphical tool. The services obtained by simulation tool are : Attribute values and simulation sequence Simulation sequences execution Capturing simulation sequence in file for later usage To collect desired output data Probe editor is used, statistical and animated output data can be collected by customizes animation option. Probe editor is used to select different output formats. List of probes is defined by grouping multiple probes by the user and are applied to the model when executed. 4.6 Data observation and collection: Result analysis tool consists of filter and analysis tool in order to observer and collect data after the simulation execution has been completed. In OPNET different simulations are used to create different outputs, as mentioned above. OPNET debugger provides detailed traces, animation and numerical data of several types to be used in order to create outputs after the execution of a simulation. Simulations in OPNET supports an open interface to C language, enabling simulation developers to create copy right protected output messages, console windows, ASCII/binary files and live connections for communication with other programs. But, commonly animation data and numerical statistics are most usable forms of output which are directly supported by simulation kernel. To view animation data generated by automatic simulation probes, simulations kernel has a package called Anim package and to view data generated by statistic probe, simulation kernel has a package called Stat package [3]. Analysis tool is used to display data in graphical form. Representation of a graph is in rectangular area called analysis panel. Graphs can be generated by performing various operations to create a new set of data. There are two axis of this analysis panel horizontal axis and vertical axis, these axis creates a plotting area used to plot different stats in the form of graphs as shown in the figure below. Figure: 4.3 (analysis panel) Data can be extracted from the simulation output files and can be displayed in different forms. With this tool one can calculate probability density function and cumulative distribution function as well as generation of histograms. For the performance analysis of a network different graphs can be merged as show in the figure above using Overlaid statistics option. 4.7 The Graphical User Interface: The graphical user interface (GUI) of modeler 14.5 is much improved from the previous versions of OPNET. It is more user friendly and is provided with a number of options. In addition to create a new project user can edit the existing projects as well. Network editor, node editor and process editor enables the user to create multiple nodes as per requirement of project. User can import traffic, user can fail or recover a link and can run the simulation by simply clicking on buttons shown on the toolbar. In the network model there is a node model, which can be accessed by double clicking on it. Process model can be accessed inside the node model, inside the node model we have the option to create sinks, queues, servers and packet streams. The option of configuration of different routers, servers, work stations and links is also available at this level. 4.8 Conclusion: OPNET is a large domain for network modeling that is being used world widely. It enables the user to edit available models at any level i.e. network, node or process level. OPNET has different applications in network modeling, because of the availability of real life models like routers, switches and workstations. Due to its user friendly interface user can make their networks more easily, and can learn the software quickly. For learning the software OPNET provides different tutorials along with the simulation results. In OPNET libraries almost all the network elements are available that are being used and implemented today. There is a huge range of predefined protocols available in OPNET libraries, in addition to these protocols user can develop new set of protocols by using Proto-C. Proto-C is gives an open interface to the users to create their own protocols as it has resemblance with C and C++. The results obtained after the execution of simulation are very much similar to those results obtained in real time scenarios. This feature of OPNET makes it capable of using it at professional level. REFRENCES [1] [2] [3] OPNET help

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Heineken IFRS vs US GAAP Essay

Like IFRS, reports prepared under US IFRS are presented: (i) statement of financial position, (ii) statement of comprehensive income, (iii) statement of changes in equity, (iv) statement of cash flows, and (v) notes including accounting policies. Unlike IFRS it is not required under US GAAP to present a statement of financial position as the beginning of the earliest comparative period. However, SEC registrants are required to present statements of financial position as of the end of the current and prior periods. There are more specific format and line item disclosure requirements for SEC registrants. Unlike IFRS, it is needed to present statements for the most recent quarters. Basis of accounting Both standards are prepared on a modified cost basis with growing emphasis on fair value. Financial statements can be measured into a non-highly inflationary currency. When an economy becomes highly inflationary, an entity makes price-level adjustments prospectively. Consolidation and non-controlling interest in consolidated financial statements Consolidation under IFRS is based under control model, which is assumed to exist when a parent company owns more than half of an entity’s voting power, or has legal rights. US GAAP uses a bipolar consolidation model, which distinguishes between a variable interest model and a voting interest model. Business combination The receiving entity records the net assets at their carrying amounts in the accounts of the transferor (historical cost). Functional and presentation currency Heineken’s consolidated financial statements are presented in euro, which is the Company’s actual functional currency. Once the acquisition is done, the local currency would be euro, the functional currency would be US dollar, and the reporting currency would be US dollar as well. Considerations assumed in the determination of functional currency: †¢The majority of the sales are going to be invoiced in U.S. dollars so that their cash inflow would be generated in greater proportion in that currency. Furthermore, most of the purchases of would be paid in U.S. dollars. †¢After the acquisition, sale prices will be settled in U.S. dollars, according to the budget made at the departmental Controlling of CBA. †¢The accounts receivable transactions (trade and related party) and accounts payable (trade and related parties) would be made in U.S. dollars. Foreign currency transactions Transactions in foreign currencies are translated to the respective functional currencies of CBA entities at the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are retranslated to the functional currency at the exchange rate at that date. The foreign currency gain or loss arising on monetary items is the difference between amortized cost in the functional currency at the beginning of the period, adjusted for effective interest and payments during the period, and the amortized cost in foreign currency translated at the exchange rate at the end of the reporting period. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are measured at fair value are retranslated to the functional currency at the exchange rate at the date that the fair value was determined. It’s important to say that unlike IFRS, US GAAP does not address whether an entity may have more than one reporting currency. However, the SEC has indicated that the foreign private issuer may select any reporting currency that the issuer deems appropriate. Also, under US GAAP the financial statements of a foreign operation in a highly inflationary economy are re-measured as if the parent’s reporting currency were its functional currency with the translation gains and losses recognized in profit or loss. Unlike IFRS, this accounting is followed for financial statements of the period that begins after the economy becomes highly inflationary. Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE) Heineken measures its items of PPE at cost less government grants received accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Heineken also depreciate its PPE items under straight line basis, and major components that are accounted for separately, since this most closely reflects the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset. It’s important to call that under US GAAP, estimates of useful and residual value, and the method of depreciation, are reviewed only when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the current estimates or depreciation method are no longer appropriate. Unlike IFRS, the revaluation of property, plant and equipment is not permitted. Inventories Heineken: Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost of inventories is based on the weighted average cost formula, and includes expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories, production or conversion costs and other costs incurred in bringing them to their existing location and condition. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses. Unlike IFRS, inventories are measured at the lower of cost and market. Under US GAAP FIFO (first in first out) method is allowed. Also, inventory is written down to market when net market is less than the cost, in difference with IFRS that states that it should be done when the realizable value is less than the cost. Leased assets Leases in terms of which Heineken assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Upon initial recognition PPE acquired by way of finance lease is measured at an amount equal to the lower of its fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments at inception of the lease. Lease payments are apportioned between the outstanding liability and finance charges so as to achieve a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Other leases are operating leases and are not recognized in Heineken statement of financial position. Payments made under operating leases are charged to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. When an operating lease is terminated before the lease period has expired, any payment required to be made to the lessor by way of penalty is recognized as an expense in the period in which termination takes place. IAS 17 and US GAAP are conceptually similar, but ISAS 17 provides less specific guidance than US GAAP and leaves it to interpretation, substance over form.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Gambling Speech

First , casinos play a big part in alluring people to play. Their flashy signs, lights, and even the e sound of people winning can be attractive even to the casual gamblers. Secondly, ca Sino can be found everywhere. There are thousands of casinos, making it convenience NT. One recent USA statistic shows that 70,000 to 105,000 citizens have financial probe ms caused by gambling and many were already broke before becoming addicted. Additionally, the gamblers family and friends are also affected.An addicted GA ambler can use all the funds available to them, causing family financial problems. So we can see that gambling can be very addictive, and each person should assess why t hey are gambling. Most gamblers usually can't rationally see their addiction. Therefore e, it is sometimes better if family or friends intervene. Depression, distress, migraines and anxiety related disorders are effects of GA ambling. But why do people still gamble if it can have such severe effects and consensus encase? Well, consider that casinos have positive benefits.One belief is that casinos AR e good for our economy or gambling can fill some emotional or psychological need. Many people don't understand when someone becomes addicted to gambling, there ex.'s not always an easy fix for the addiction. Also, gambling doesn't have a â€Å"low percept mintage† of winning. This is why many people think they II win a lot of money or recover their losses, because there's a good opportunity to win. The problem is, it's just as easy to lose. If you play 5 times, you might win 2 of those times and 3 times you'll wall k out with nothing.The gambler's only thoughts are about trying to win again, and t hey get addicted to that feeling; so its easy to see the appeal and how it keeps you go ins even when you continue to lose. What can we do to stop or reduce gambling in our world? Before you help 10th errs, help yourself. Ask yourself if you'd ever think about gambling and if it would be any DO D for you? Would you gamble to relieve stress, to have fun or for a onetime eve NT? Next, you could always seek help from God.Praying about the people addicted and knowing what we can do to help them is one step towards making the world a little bit better. Furthermore, we can spread the truth about gambling. Casinos are profitable from gamblers based on positive beliefs about gambling and we should raise aware knees of gambling effects and assist those who are addicted. 1 Timothy 6:10 says â€Å"The e love of money is the root of all evil. † Those who are rich in this world should not 10 eve money ore than God, who already provides us with everything for our enjoyment.Although money is a necessity to live, it should not be the main pursuit in our lives. Our main focus should be on God and our faith towards Him. Gambling is legal in many places which makes it easily accessible and is a maim contributor to the addiction problem. Perhaps the casinos and government c loud better monitor the casinos to help the gamblers. If you are considering gambling so onetime, think about what you are supporting, how it could affect your life, and maybe what you could do to help someone you know whose gambling too much.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

starry night analysis - 954 Words

Vincent Van Gogh’s artwork ‘starry night’ is a classic example of the post impressionism movement. Post-impressionist were artist who rebelled against the limitations of impressionism. They developed person styles that focus on emotional, structural, symbolic and spiritual elements they felt were missing from impressionism. ‘Starry Night’ was created in 1889, earlier that year Van Gogh decided to enter the asylum at Saint-Rà ©my. ‘Starry night’ was inspired by the view from his window in the asylum. The painting was done on canvas with oil paints. The height of the paint 73.70cm the height being 92.10cm. Van Goghs night sky is brimming with energy and it contrasts with the silent village below. The town he depicts in Starry Night is†¦show more content†¦I feel that the town relates to Van Gogh’s life. It’s pretty quiet, everyone’s lights are out while they’re asleep totally unaware of the intense night sky that’s full of life, it makes me feel like he was trying to inform viewers of the ignorance of individuals. I think the village accurately represents a world, all of the people so unaware of raging passions that are going on around them. However to understand starry night to full extent, we must look at the big picture. Vincent Van Gogh was one of the great postimpressionist artists. Postimpressionism was basically a rebellion against impressionism, which believed that art should reflect reality with natural colour and lighting. Postimpressionists believed that art is not meant to imitate form, but to create form. These artists took some inspiration in the world and then painted their world according to their own perceptions. As Van Gogh himself said, We may succeed in creating a more exciting and comforting nature than we can discern with a single glimpse of reality. They had no fixed style – their personal styles reflect on personalities, emotions and soul. Many critics say his bush strokes, odd shapes and painting style were ‘loony’. I don’t think so, tormented and troubled? Maybe yes. But crazy? No! I think Van Gogh executed this painting beautifully, and he knew exactly what he was doing. My interpretation of this artwork is probably different to many, as everyShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Poem The Starry Night Essay2195 Words   |  9 PagesHow I Learned to Read Literature Mary Carnahan LI 310 – Contemporary Literature September 18, 2016 Introduction I’m going to analyze one poem that I read during this course. The poem I’ve chosen is: The Starry Night. When evaluating the poem, be sure to analyze it in terms of voice, word choice and order, imagery, the figures of speech used, sound, and form. In addition analyze any symbols, allegory, allusion, myth, and themes that arise in the poem. I’m going to analyze one shortRead MoreAnalysis Of Starry Night 882 Words   |  4 PagesRachael Brooks Mrs. Cole English 4B 23 October 2015 Analyzing Mood and Theme in Starry Night For many, the painting Starry Night, by Vincent Van Gogh, is simply paint on a canvas. Created in the summer of 1889, while Van Gogh was in a mental asylum, others perceive the painting as a message of Van Gogh’s desire for acceptance and normalcy. Heavily influenced by the Expressionist movement, Starry Night is a physical representation of Van Gogh’s feelings of melencholy during his stay in the asylumRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Starry Night 853 Words   |  4 Pagesor feelings in his work. Van Gogh’s piece Starry Night, designed in the year 1889, shows this to be true in that it was the result of his experiences in an asylum that encouraged this piece. Despite this work has being so well known, many critics and observers of the piece have differing views on what he was trying to communicate through it. Two prime examples of this can be seen by the views expressed in the poems entitled, â€Å"Vincent† and â€Å"The Starry Night†, written by Don McClean and Anne SextonRead MoreAnalysis Of Van Gogh s Starry Night 1202 Words   |  5 Pagesmental asylum. Interestingly enough, he painted this piece from his memory and it was supposed to have been based on a constellation arrangement he had seen earlier on in the night sky of Provence. Starry Night is perhaps one of his most famous and yet most elusive works. The first thing that I noticed was the overwhelming night sky, which takes up most of the background. Its swirling, flowing lines appear to be swishing across the background in this gentle, wavy motion and seem to be merging at theRead MoreAnalysis Of Van Gogh s Starry Night Sky1210 Words   |  5 Pageslandscape oil painting Starry Night. The painting displays a small town underneath an unusual yet still extremely beautiful night sky. In this night sky, Van Gogh utilizes an array of colors that blend well together in order to enhance the sky as a whole. The town is clearly a small one due to the amount of buildings that are present in the painting itself. In this small town most of the buildings have lights on which symbolize life in a community. Another visual in Starry Night is the mountain likeRead MoreAnalysis Of Vincent Van Gogh s The Starry Night Painting1180 Words   |  5 Pagesartifact such as a painting, a musical composition, a building, or a piece of furniture. Do the five canons of rhetoric—invention, organization, style, memory, and delivery—apply? If they do, explain how you see them manifest in the artifact. - The Starry Night painting by Vincent van Gogh utilizes the five canons of rhetoric in this artifact because van Gogh used the invention of his paintings by suffrage he was facing from mental illness, and he used his paintings as a way to release his pain. TheRead MoreCritical Analysis: Starry Night over the Rhone Essay813 Words   |  4 PagesNorris Freeman Art Appreciation Professor Gadson 20 February 2013 Critical Analysis: Starry Night Over the Rhone Vincent Van Gogh was a Dutch artist from the mid 1800’s who was considered to have created approximately 2000 artworks. Growing up, he was classified to be highly emotional and having low self-esteem. Within those depressed emotions, it helped him pioneer the path of expressionism in his art pieces. But as he got more into him artwork he came more mature with his artwork and causedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Starry Night By Anna Sexton952 Words   |  4 PagesWhat need is there to weep over parts of life? The whole of it calles for tears. - Seneca The poem, ‘Starry Night’, by Anna Sexton, which was interpretation of a personal view for Van Gogh’s artwork, â€Å"Starry Night†. The prophetical nature of Anne Sexton s spiritual poetry, Starry Night, ensues the melancholy of humanity. The poem depicts Sexton s interpretation of the immense psychological suffering of a religious human being. By addressing, Van Gogh s work caught with a deep understandingRead MoreVisual And Contextual Analysis Of Vincent Van Gogh s The Starry Night961 Words   |  4 PagesA Formal Visual and Contextual Analysis of Vincent Van Gogh’s The Starry Night When I first saw Vincent van Gogh’s painting of The Starry Night, I was immediately drawn to the peaceful luminescent stars emanating outward like vibrant yellow halos into the captivating striking blue sky. I felt a sense of calm and tranquility as the bright orange moon shone intently over the serene village below. The sprawling mountain range, grassy hills and fields of wheat intensified this feeling as a soft windRead MoreAnalysis Of Van Gogh s Agony By Lauren Soth And Under The Starry Night By Denis J. Billy Essay2419 Words   |  10 Pagesa kind of spiritual quest, perhaps one that Van Gogh was on himself. The Starry Night is still heavily contemplated and its meaning is still relatively unknown and quite debated, as is the man himself. In an effort to gain an understanding of not only the painting but the painter himself, I chose two articles that provide an understanding of the art and the artist: Van Gogh’s Agony by Lauren Soth and Under the Starry Night by Denis J. Billy. Both writers take a different approach to grasping the