Thursday, October 31, 2019

Persuasive Letter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Persuasive Letter - Essay Example Communication Solutions for the last five years and prior work experience at the procurement department at the Cortland County Government offices not only present me as an ideal representative of our organization in the deal, but also opens a new chapter for our customer experience if my application goes through. Basing my application from an internal perspective of the two organizations party to the contract, my conversance with the systems of operation regarding procurement objectives at Cortland County Government and sales objectives at Lintech Communication Solutions will assist me to negotiate the best deal out of the contract. In light of the past circumstances causing revocation of rather lucrative contracts, it can squarely be blamed on the lack of understanding between Lintech Communication Solutions representative and our clients. As past management reports confirm, such failure can be attributed to a poor customer experience based on misunderstanding of the two systems of operation. Having been a part of the two contractual organizations, my representation of Lintech Communication Solutions at the initiation negotiations can guarantee success to this end. The familiarity that I have with the County Government officials is a valuable bargaining beginning for our organization. Besides my strategic advantage with conversance, my recent engagements on behalf of Lintech Communication Solutions have been in contracts of installation of video conferencing equipment for three different county government offices. All of these projects can be rated one of the best for the entire country and Lintech Communication Solutions, since the Federal Government rolled out the video conferencing plan for all government offices. Having taken part in the pilot projects that have had such success presents me as the ideal candidate for yet another successful negotiation for our organization. These deals were allocated to us amid a competitive backdrop crowded by numerous

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Education level vs. GDP per capital (Analysis) Essay

Education level vs. GDP per capital (Analysis) - Essay Example From the table above, there is less than 5 years of elementary school and the GDP are perfectly negatively correlated. There is a relatively strong correlation between 4 or more years of college and GDP per capita than there is between high school completion or higher and the GDP per capita. This means that those who have less than 5 years elementary education contribute less to the country’s GDP per capita as compared to high school completion and 4 or more years of college. The longer one takes in learning, the higher they contribute to the GDP per capita. From the regression analysis output above, the equation of the model is y = -1129498.874 +583.606*Year. This is to show that there is a significant relationship between the GDP and the education level as years spent in school is part of the model formula. Based on the four years moving average of the country’s gdp above, it is healthy to assume that the country’s GDP is improving exponentially over the years with the forecasted GDP almost meeting the actual GDP (Corder, &, Foreman, 35) Even though the data provides that there is a strong correlation between education level and the gdp, IT is imperative to note that the GDP as it is, is a wide econometric term used to refer to a number of variables. Therefore, the relationship between the educational levels and the GDP may be assumed correct in the light of the data but not in real life scenarios. One is likely to realize that the GDP alone to be strongly correlated to the other macroeconomic factors than just educational level. It is therefore important to conduct anon parametric analysis on the other variable before making a concrete conclusion (Spearman,

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Heart Rate Changes In Different Genders Physical Education Essay

Heart Rate Changes In Different Genders Physical Education Essay This report sets out research based on prior experience and literature carrying out the study of relations between exercise and respiration eventually resulting in variation in pulse rate. In essence the research proposal seeks to understand more about the effect and cause relationship to come out with precise results. The report details the methodological issues connected with the research and it explores the choices and assumptions necessary in planning the research. The aim of the study was to see the effect of age and gender on pulse rate variation in response to exercise. For this investigation we made sure the practical is safe because we would not do things that would affect people and also we would not be dangerous to others. We needed to use pulse-meter to check pulse rate down every finding. In our research it was expected that the pulse rate would increase during the time of exercise and also the breathing rate would be faster than normal and that gender and age would affe ct the pulse rate of people. The weights (dumbles) were given to the subjects to use for five minute and one of us assisted them to make sure they used the weights properly. The pulse rate was noted down before the experiment with the help of pulse meter and was recorded again after carrying out the five minute round of exercise with the weights. The ages and gender were also noted. The results of the experiment proved that the pulse rate increased by a substantial amount after the exercise had been completed and that females had a higher pulse rate than men. Moreover, it was seen that age mens ages increase, their pulse rate increases and there was no correlation between females ages and their pulse rates. This experiment tests the effects of age, gender and exercise on pulse  rate. Pulse rate represents the beating of the heart, specifically the  ejection of blood from the left ventricle to the general circulation of the body.  Before the start of exercise, your pre-exercise heart rate usually  rises  above normal, and this is called an anticipatory response. During  exercise, respiration increases based on the amount of activity being  done. When exercise is being completed, there is an increased demand  for gas exchange, due to the circulatory system being under continuous  stress. Oxygen consumption increases rapidly, as well as carbon dioxide  production.  Regular exercise also produces changes in circulation. The blood flow  to working muscles increase, and this means that more oxygen and  energy can be delivered to the muscle cells. Blood volume and the  number of red blood cells also increase with this large flow, and  oxygen  levels rise conside rably.  In our experiment we have decided to test a type of exercise;  use of weight (dumbles). This will affect various parts of the body and is designed  to  build up stamina and keep a regular heart beat. Objective This experiment aims to discover how exercise can  affect the pulse rate of any given individual by testing their pulse  rate after different amounts of exercise and how gender and age affects the pulse rate. Literature Review Research has shown that the pulse rate of men is slower than the pulse rate for women. Different researches have been conducted on the effect of exercise on the health of human being. The studies were intended to examine the influence of exercise on pulse rate, heart rate and fitness of people. Experts from cardiac health suggest that the best way to keep hearts healthy is a balanced diet, avoiding smoking, and regular exercise. Exercise that is good for your heart elevates your heart rate. The American Heart Association recommends to do exercise that increases your heart rate to between 50 and 75% of your maximum heart rate. They recommend getting at least 30  minutes of exercise on most days of the week (AHA, 2006). The American Heart Association also suggests that pulse rate for woman is considered normal if it is between 70-80 beats per minute. However, pulse rate may be affected by variables such as age, sex, physical fitness, some drugs/medication, genetics and anxiety. A study of (WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise) revealed that your pulse changes from minute to minute. It will be faster when you exercise, have fever or when you are under stress. It will be slower when you are taking rest. The institute also did an experiment to see the pulse rate difference in males and females. The results of the experiment were that the pulse rate of the females was in fact higher than the male pulse rate by six beats.   The overall female average was 85 beats per minute and the overall for males was 79 beats per minute. Scott Roberts, Ph.D., FACSM, FAACVPR, is an assistant professor in the Department of Physical Education and Exercise Physiology at California State University, Chico. His primary area of expertise is Clinical Exercise Physiology. He has authored and co-authored 10 fitness and exercise science books and over a hundred articles and chapters in books. His studies tell that women have a higher Heart Rate response than men. This response compensates for the lower stroke volumes women have compared to men. The average amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute is referred to as cardiac output. Another research by the American Journal of hypertension concluded that there was no influence of the exercise on pulse rate, blood pressure level and rates of hypertension of the elderly population of ages 50 and above. But the research showed that regular exercise can develop better health and fitness in the younger population. According to (Silverstein, Alvin Dr., et al, The Circulatory System Canada; Fitzhenrey and Whiteside Ltd.  1994), age also affects the pulse rate.   The usual pulse rate for a baby embryo is 150 b.p.m. (beats per minute).The average pulse rate of an infant140 b.p.m and 90 b.p.m in seven years old.   A man from 30-40 years old usually has a pulse rate of approximately 72 b.p.m; this differs from 76-80 b.p.m for a woman of the same age.   Elderly people have the lowest of the other age groups, which is around 50-65 b.p.m.   Women usually have higher pulse rates than men.   Another difference among pulse rates is physical activity. Exercising, such as playing sports, speed your pulse rate up and almost double the speed of your heart.   A study from Brigham and Womens Hospital also conveys the message that the human health can be judged by four vital signs which are Pulse rate, Body temperature, Respiration rate and the Blood pressure. All of these signs can be controlled and regulated by doing regular exercise. Like all other researches Texas Heart Institute also came up with a thought that exercise can help your body in many ways. Aside from helping you to keep a healthy body weight, exercise increases your mobility, protects against bone loss, reduces your stress levels and pulse rates, and helps you feel better about yourself. And research has shown that people who exercise are less likely to develop heart disease, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol levels. People of any age or fitness level can benefit from some type of exercise, be it running, walking, ballroom dancing, water aerobics, gardening, or any activity you choose. A study from NEMA (National Emergency Medicine Association) shows that many athletes have pulse rates in the 40 60 range depending on how fit they are. In general a lower pulse rate is good and exercise programs helps doing so. In addition to that declines will be seen in resting heart rate, blood pressure, and stress levels as well. Overall body changes will also be experienced including weight loss and increase of lean body mass. Hypothesis Development Null Hypothesis H0 = There is no relationship between the age, gender and pulse rate. HO: p à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚   0 Alternative Hypothesis HA = There is a relationship between the age, gender and pulse rate. HA: p = 0 Theoretical Framework The dependent variable here is the pulse rate which changes when exercise is carried out. So, exercise, gender and age are the independent variables which can be manipulated to determine the change in pulse rate. Some intervening variable also interrupt the independent variable and create a discrepancy in the results. Identification of Variables Independent Exercise Age Gender Dependent Pulse Rate Intervening variables Such as illness, faulty tools etc. DIAGRAM Dependent Variable Independent Variables Age Gender Exercise Pulse Rate Intervening Variables illness, faulty tools Methodology Nature Of study the nature of the study is hypothesis testing. Data Collection The data for our research was obtained through experiment and some secondary sources of information, which included internet articles, journals and books. Population Our target population consisted of males and females living in Lahore. Sample The sample comprises of 1070 people, half males and half females. Instruments The instruments used were two dumbles weighing 5 kg each, a stopwatch and a pulse meter. Procedure: The methodology was based on field Experiment research. 1070 people (half males and half females) were approached in different parks and market areas of Lahore. Convenience sampling was used i.e(willing people were chosen to be a part of the experiment). Their pulse rates were recorded before exercise. They were each asked to use lift two weights of 5 kg each for five minutes. Their pulse rate after the exercise was then recorded using the pulse meter. Their age and gender was recorded. The results were then recorded in SPSS and conclusions were drawn based on the collected results. Reliability The reliability of the instruments was ensured through test-retest method. For test-retest reliability method five males from the sample were chosen. Their pulse rate before exercise was recorded twice after a time interval of two minutes. The results obtained in both the attempts co-related to a high degree (Co-efficient=0.87). Validity The content validity is ensured since the pulse meter is measuring the pulse of a person per minute. Results The results of the experiment are as follows: Descriptives: The results show that the mean values of pulse rate in males are lower than the mean values of the pulse rate in females. This shows that females have a higher pulse rate than men. The results also prove that the pulse rate increases after exercise, as the means of the pulse rates before exercise are lower than the means of the pulse rates after exercise. N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Without Exercise male 1070 55 105 85.09 10.227 With Exercise male 1070 82 144 116.03 13.118 Valid N (listwise) 1070 N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation With Exercise Female 535 96 144 120.41 10.060 Without Exercise Female 535 70 105 92.19 6.373 Valid N (listwise) 535 Correlation: The table below shows a weak positive correlation between age of males and their pulse rate without exercise. This means that as the ages of males increase, their pulse rate increases. The value is significant. Age Without Exercise pulse Age male Pearson Correlation 1 .270(**) Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 535 535 Without Exercise pulse males Pearson Correlation .270(**) 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 535 535 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). The table below shows that there is almost no correlation between the age of females and their pulse rate without exercise. This means that the two variables are not related. Age Female Without Exercise pulse Age Female Pearson Correlation 1 .043 Sig. (2-tailed) .317 N 535 535 Without Exercise pulse female Pearson Correlation .043 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .317 N 535 535 Graphical representation of results Discussion We are of the view that when the body is exercising the muscles respire to  produce energy, so the muscles can contract. Oxygen is needed for this  process; the oxygen is carried in the hemoglobin of the red blood  cell. The heart and lungs need to work harder in order to get a  greater amount of oxygen to the muscles for respiration. In muscle cells digested food substances are oxidized to release energy. These  oxidation reactions are called cellular respiration. When muscles use  oxygen in order to respire the process is called aerobic respiration:  The heart rate rises because during exercise, cell respiration in the  muscles increases, so the level of carbon dioxide in the blood rises.  Carbon dioxide is slightly acid; the brain detects the rising acidity  in the blood, the brain then sends a signal through the nervous system  to the lungs to breathe faster and deeper. Gaseous exchange in the  lungs increases allowing more oxygen into the circulatory syst em and removing more carbon dioxide. The brain then sends a signal to the  senatorial node to make the heart beat faster. As a result the heart  rate would rise.  The length of exercise is  increased; the number of beats per minute will rise. The number of  beats per minute rises steadily because the amount of exercise is gradually increased. The heart reacts to this by increasing the number  of times per minute that it beats so that the muscles have enough  oxygen and glucose to work with the greater amount of exercise. In a trial the body temperature of the  exerciser will rise. The heat of the body will increase the heart  rate which will adversely affect our results, making them less  accurate and reliable. We cannot control if the body heats up during  exercise, only to the extent of using a fan to cool the epidermis of  the skin which would lower the temperature of the blood, thus reducing  the bodys core temperature. This would then keep the heart ra te at a  more natural level when a sample will be exercising. The intervening variables which may act at the point of time and are hard to calculate may affect the findings but we are trying to minimize the chance of error by taking measures. Although exercise increases pulse rate, age and gender definitely have an impact on it also. We saw that as age in men increases, their pulse rate also increases, whereas in females, there is no correlation between the age and pulse rates. Moreover, the mean values of pulse rates for females are higher than the mean values of pulse rates for men. Acknowledgements Our debt to people who have supported us in this whole project is enormous. We highly appreciate their complete support, interest, patience and lucid explanations. We highly appreciate the coordination of individuals most of whom we didnt know who cooperated and showed their consent to complete our research. We are really thankful to Mr. Humair Hashmi who taught and led us to the path of attaining a successful Research. References AHA, 2006. Target Heart Rates, American Heart Association [accessed June 20, 2006 WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise American Journal of Hypertension Brigham and womens Hospital,P00866 Texas Heart Institute NEMA (National Emergency Medicine Association)

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation Essa

The Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation When I first began my research for this paper, I was primarily interested in learning more about the role of serotonin in the treatment of anxiety disorders. While I did discover that serotonin is important, especially when it comes to understanding the latest drugs being prescribed by doctors to combat anxiety symptoms, I also learned that researchers are pursuing a number of other "leads" in investigating the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. There has been evidence suggesting that a particular gene, or genes, may be associated with the development of anxiety disorders (1). In addition, the circuitry of the amygdala, an area of the brain that regulates fear responses, is now being studied (2). First, I will briefly summarize my findings regarding serotonin, and then I will offer my own personal reaction. I will focus my response around Social Anxiety Disorder, one of a number of anxiety disorders that are diagnosed and treated today. Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illnesses in America, affecting approximately 19 million adults (3). Although everyone experiences mild symptoms of anxiety at some point in their lives, those who suffer from an anxiety disorder have chronic and intense bouts of panic. They may fear or dread common social situations such as being out in public with a group of friends (4), or experience full-blown panic attacks (5) that make it impossible to go grocery shopping or to get to work in the morning. If untreated, anxiety disorders can severely impact the quality of one's life, and symptoms may grow even worse over time. There are several types of anxiety disorders, including Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disor... ...c internet resource 6)Serotonin, from Department of Psychology, California State University 7)"The Physiology of Panic Disorder, Part II", from Panic/Anxiety Disorders on 8)"Drug May Help in Rx, Education of Panic Disorder", from The Medical Post, January 29, 1996, found on Internet Mental Health 9)Paxil, from SmithKline Beecham Other Resources 1)The Neurobiology of Childhood Emotion: Anxiety, from The American Psychoanalyst, Vol. 32, No. 2 2)The Neurobiology of Depression, from Scientific American, June 1998 The Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation Essa The Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation When I first began my research for this paper, I was primarily interested in learning more about the role of serotonin in the treatment of anxiety disorders. While I did discover that serotonin is important, especially when it comes to understanding the latest drugs being prescribed by doctors to combat anxiety symptoms, I also learned that researchers are pursuing a number of other "leads" in investigating the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. There has been evidence suggesting that a particular gene, or genes, may be associated with the development of anxiety disorders (1). In addition, the circuitry of the amygdala, an area of the brain that regulates fear responses, is now being studied (2). First, I will briefly summarize my findings regarding serotonin, and then I will offer my own personal reaction. I will focus my response around Social Anxiety Disorder, one of a number of anxiety disorders that are diagnosed and treated today. Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illnesses in America, affecting approximately 19 million adults (3). Although everyone experiences mild symptoms of anxiety at some point in their lives, those who suffer from an anxiety disorder have chronic and intense bouts of panic. They may fear or dread common social situations such as being out in public with a group of friends (4), or experience full-blown panic attacks (5) that make it impossible to go grocery shopping or to get to work in the morning. If untreated, anxiety disorders can severely impact the quality of one's life, and symptoms may grow even worse over time. There are several types of anxiety disorders, including Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disor... ...c internet resource 6)Serotonin, from Department of Psychology, California State University 7)"The Physiology of Panic Disorder, Part II", from Panic/Anxiety Disorders on 8)"Drug May Help in Rx, Education of Panic Disorder", from The Medical Post, January 29, 1996, found on Internet Mental Health 9)Paxil, from SmithKline Beecham Other Resources 1)The Neurobiology of Childhood Emotion: Anxiety, from The American Psychoanalyst, Vol. 32, No. 2 2)The Neurobiology of Depression, from Scientific American, June 1998

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Premarital Cohabitation Essay

Over the past 30 years countries have experienced a phenomenon that has raised many questions about the future of the institution of marriage. Western societies, such as the United States, Canada, and countries in Western Europe have witnessed a virtual explosion in the number of unmarried cohabitating couples. Quite a number of studies have been done to research what effect, if any, this trend has on the subsequent marriage, and how does this affect any children as a result of this union. According to some estimates, since the 1970s, the number of couples that live together has more than tripled. However, there are two sides to the story – one, proposes that premarital cohabitation is like a trial marriage and allows people to eventually marry the one they are more comfortable and compatible with. The other point of view is that premarital cohabitation leads to a higher divorce rate in the society and may also have other negative effects. However, research suggests that there is little merit to the claim that cohabitation effectively serves as a trial marriage. Furthermore, studies indicate that premarital cohabitation is actually detrimental because it leads to higher divorce rates and dissolution of marriage. Why Would People Prefer to Cohabit To understand the effects of cohabitation it is necessary to review why people cohabit in the first place. About 50% of cohabitating individuals express the belief that living together without is a way to determine compatibility before getting married. Based on the premise that premarital cohabitation allows couples to determine compatibility, this practice should result in more stable marriages. However, evidence suggests that the contrary is true. Cohabitation is linked to lower levels of marital satisfaction. Couples who previously lived together are reported to spend less time together in shared activities. They report higher levels of marital disagreement, less supportive behavior, less problem-solving, more marital problems, and greater perceived likelihood of marital dissolution (Amato 2003). Premarital Cohabitation Leads to Higher Divorce Rates Research has shown that cohabitation is extremely unstable. For example, Canada has experienced a ninefold increase in the numbers of cohabitating couples, as well as a fourfold increase in the number of divorces over the past 30 years. Recent studies have not only indicated that cohabitation is negatively linked to marital stability, but studies also indicate that living in common law is related to a decrease in quality of marriage (Hall 1995). In a survey conducted by the Australian Institute of Family Studies Family Formation Project showed that after 5 years of being married, 13 per cent of those who had cohabited before marriage would divorce, versus six per cent of non-cohabiters. Ten years later, the difference increased to 26 per cent for those who had cohabited and 14 per cent for those who had not. After 20 years, there was a further increase of 56 per cent of people who had cohabited versus 27 per cent of those who had not (Weston 2007). Many reasons are cited for the resulting instability and the higher divorce rate among former couples who formerly cohabitated. Cohabitators are thought to hold more unconventional values and attitudes than those who marry without cohabitating. Those who cohabitate are thought to have a weaker commitment to marriage in general, or they may have higher expectations about the quality of marriage than those who do not cohabitate. Cohabitators are also thought to have socioeconomic or personality characteristics that are linked to higher likelihood of union dissolution (Dourleijn 2006). Among these socioeconomic and personality factors which are thought to be linked to higher instances of marital dissolution are parental divorce, less education, lower income, premarital pregnancy and childbirth, being non-white, and having had a previous divorce (Cohan 2002). According to research conducted and published in the American Sociological Review, it was concluded that â€Å"Overall association exists between premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital instability. The dissolution rates of women who cohabit premaritally with their future spouse are, on average, nearly 80 percent higher than the rates of those who do not. † (Bennett, Blanc, and Bloom 1988). Based on the US data, researchers have shown that ‘marriages that are preceded by living together have 50 per cent higher disruption rates than marriages without premarital cohabitation. In Sweden, researched showed that cohabiters were more likely to divorce even if the period of marriage is counted from the beginning of cohabitation. A subsequent study also found that premarital cohabitation, regardless of the nature or reason; it is associated with an increased risk of marital instability. Based on the work of Bennett, Blanc and Bloom (1987) whose findings correspond with previous findings, the following conclusions can be made: knowing that cohabiters and non-cohabiters differ in the sense of higher risk of divorce, the researchers set about to explore if there are other characteristics which were unique to these two groups, or a factor which can show that it is not premarital cohabitation alone which leads to higher divorce rate. While no one factor was found to support the argument that cohabitation caused the difference, researchers did not find a characteristic to dispute the argument. According to their data sample, women who cohabited were younger than those who did not. They are also more likely to have had a premarital conception, and were twice as likely to have had a premarital birth. For those who marry at a young age, or who have had a premarital birth have higher divorce rates. However, the first birth within a marriage has a stabilizing effect, and for these couples divorce rates are one quarter lower. These results are consistent with previous research. In 1985, it was found that for every year of age an adult attains before marrying, the risk of dissolution decreases by 16%. Education achieved for women is negatively related with the possibility of divorce. However, for this aspect other factors may also be involved. When social background was considered, similar findings were found. Social background is measured by using the occupation of the main breadwinner in the household. This factor indicates level of education achieved, parent’s marital status etc. It was found that women in households with a white collar worker as the breadwinner had higher divorce rates than other women. Another interesting finding concerns the duration of how long the couple have been together. The researchers assume that people who cohabit can be roughly divided into two groups: those who believe in the institution of marriage, and those who don’t. In such a case, the less committed group should be seen to have higher divorce rates. This should be observable if the relationship between cohabitation and dissolution should decrease with increase in duration. This is proved by the data researchers had collected. Their findings show that for up to two years of marriage the divorce rates of people who had cohabited before was almost three times. This reduced to twice for people who were married for two to eight years. After eight years, the differences in divorce rates of cohabiters and non-cohabiters are statistically insignificant. Thus one interpretation of this is the fact that people who cohabit have characteristics that make them more likely to have higher chances of a divorce. Another finding points to the fact that women who cohabit premaritally for more than three years have a 54 percent higher divorce rate than those who have cohabitated for shorter periods of time. This is because the former groups of people have such characteristics which make them less willing to commit. These include valuing one’s independence and being more self-reliant (Bennett 1987). Other Adverse Effects The increase in the rate of premarital cohabitation raises important concerns about the institution of marriage from a societal perspective. One concern is that individuals may find cohabitation to be an attractive arrangement and will be more likely to view marriage as undesirable. Another concern is that the high rate of dissolution among couples will reinforce the view that â€Å"intimate relationships are fragile and temporary,† thereby reducing the view within society that marriage is a rewarding lifetime commitment. In addition, research shows that cohabitation is linked to delayed marriage, an increase in nonmarital fertility, less commitment to marriage, and greater approval of divorce and nonmarital cohabitation. Furthermore, societies which have experienced a sharp increase in premarital cohabitation rates have also experienced an upward trend in divorce, premarital sex, and premarital pregnancy rates, while marriage and marital fertility rates have declined (Balakrishnan 1995). Conclusion: Although a number of individuals believe that cohabitation provides a means by which couples may determine their compatibility before getting married, there is a vast body of strong evidence that suggests otherwise. Married couples who previously lived together report high levels of marital disagreement, spend less time together, and are more likely believe that their marriage will end in dissolution. These couples tend to be less supportive of each other, and they institute fewer problem solving skills. Cohabitation has been linked to lower commitment levels among couples, diminished views on the marital relationship in general, and a higher divorce rate. These ill effects are directly linked to the cohabitation trend, which has exploded over the course of the past few decades. Researchers believe that cohabitation leads to unstable marriages because those who cohabitate tend to have weaker commitment to marriage in general, or they may have higher expectations for the quality of married life. Cohabitators are also more likely to hold unconventional views on marriage. It has also been observed that those who cohabitate tend to have other socioeconomic and individual characteristics that are linked to a higher rate of marriage dissolution. In addition to the higher divorce rate that seems to be directly related to the dramatic increase in cohabitation, other undesirable effects have also resulted. Societies that have experienced a surge in premarital or nonmarital cohabitation have also seen a sharp increase in premarital pregnancies, delayed marriage, and greater acceptance and approval of divorce and nonmarital cohabitation.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Oversea Study Agent in China Essay

1.0 Introduction As China’s refrom and opening up, foreign exchange increasing day by day. Studying abroad craze after another. More and more people chose to accept foreign advanced education. This report is small scale survey on experiences with the services of oversea study agencies, which in order to inform readers some informations about oversea study agencies, let them have a more comprehensive understanding of these agents. First, some basic overviews of oversea study agent such as what is the oversea study agent, the history and development of these agencies, the role and characteristics of oversea study agencies, will be described in this report. Then it also show some main problems of oversea study agencies, which include some illegal phoenomenons, professionalism of employee is low and regulatory mechanism is not perfect. Legal system is not perfect and the lack of high-quality personnel as the causes of problems followed by. At last the recommendation and conclusion will be illustrated. 2.0 Procedures This paper is after a group discussion and arrangements. Five education agents are investigated through telephone consultation, internet search, etc. They are Golden Oriental, Jin Gillette, Mei Grabrel, CIEC World Famous Studio to study vertical and horizontal, Zhong Rui in Shanghai. There are also some views reference by authority report. 3.0 Findings 3.1 Some basic overview of oversea study agent 3.1.1 What is oversea studying agencies Oversea study agent is a intermediary for students to studying abroad to other countries that provide school students application and visa application assistance and services. Everywhere in the world exist this industry. In China the first countries to ratify the legal service agencies to study abroad is very high, the first practitioners of the business background needed to be engaged in education institutions, so the first batch of approved institutions most comprehensive university with some formal or large state government departments, only two company are private institutions, Jin Gillette in Beijing and Zhong Rui in Shanghai . And the choice of this two institutions are engaged in their education both at the same time quite strong behind the enterprise groups as the background. Second and subsequent access to qualified institutional conditions in the application than the first batch of great relaxation, an increase of more institutions, but are required to be registered within the legal institutions. 3.1.2 The role of oversea study agent First, providing professional guidance to reduce the personal trouble. This is the most important role of education agents. The current situation is that most people and institutions of education abroad do not quite understand the situation, the role of intermediaries is to use the relationship with foreign educational institutions, combined with national policies to individuals and schools to study the national situation, to apply for admission, handle Visa and other relevant information and advice. Procedures for many students, if they apply the words of ordinary people, not only spend more time, and error-prone, with the help of an intermediary, you can greatly reduce such problems. Second, providing legally qualified schools. It is understood that there are two types of foreign registered schools, one is teaching institutions, although another category called the school, but in fact is the company, and such registration requirements of the company’s relatively loose, the more difficult for teachers and teaching quality assurance. Chinese government prohibited foreign institutions and educational service agencies engaged in recruiting activities on their own in, requiring direct intermediary service organizations and educational institutions with foreign universities signed a cooperation agreement and submit the location of the relevant provincial education administrative departments for the record, but also requires foreign school to provide the Embassy of China in the internationally renowned certification other than the institutions. The goal is to prevent a number of international universities and the poor quality of some multinational companies fraud in China. Therefore, the study intermediary agreements with foreign institutions of higher learning in schools is actually a constraint, so as to ensure the quality of teaching in schools and individual rights. Then, to help design individual study plans. Study abroad is a new way of learning in China, so most Chinese people find it difficult to design their own study plan. There arise a phenomenon that many people have chosen wrong counties, wrong school or wrong professional. The losses are difficult to be measured by money. Study intermediary with resources, according to consumer expertise, interests and financial ability to provide consumers with a most appropriate and most effective way to study. In addition, there is a balance the function of oversea study agencies for market supply and demand. As with other products in the market, study abroad market also has a supply and demand balance. The difference is that, as the case involves foreign students, consumers are poorly understood, the role of intermediaries is that the students grasp the situation told the consumer market, and guide consumers in different countries and schools to filter, so that the education market and a balanced supply and demand. 3.2 Problems of oversea study agencies It is report that â€Å"Golden Oriental† has the trap of going abroad, 15 students trapped in Germany. A parents said the â€Å"Golden Oriental† is a German training center in Qingdao, the main business is to recruit students to learn German. Enrollment in the center, forward to introduce registration of students and parents â€Å"to learn the language here, must we go through the exit of the relevant procedures.† This fully demonstrates the agency of studying abroad at this stage still exit some problems. 1. Some illegal phenomenon First, unauthorized business in the studying intermediary. Without the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Public Security issued a â€Å"permit to study intermediary services,† without the approval of the administrative department for industry and commerce registration, engaging in business activities of education agents. In Beijing there are still some people who employ by the â€Å"three no company† (no license, no office, no charge certificate) to the embassy in front of students engaged in activities of intermediary services around by some foreign embassies. These illegal intermediary agencies in profits, driven by the illicit in intermediary services. Second, there is a linked management phenomenon. Linked management is some of the illegal gain qualification in legal education agents affiliated companies access to the following qualification to the legitimate operations of those features. There are some study intermediaries authorized by the parent company of illegally engaging in a branch or branches of intermediary business, the umbrella agency to act as illegal. Finally, some foreign companies do illegally business in China. State expressly that foreign investment institutions in the country engaged in the study can not be mediated. But there are still some companies as the representative of the foreign school or under the banner of the Office of foreign schools in China to enroll students. 3.2.2 Professionalism of employee is low It is understood that practitioners who have the correlated educational background in the study abroad agency are less than 50ï ¼â€¦. Management has not issued specific standards for employees in certificates, but no appraisal system. Most of the intermediary’s employees are recruited from the community, by the agency after a simple training to induction, a considerable number of other employees in the state organs or institutions of workers retire, there officers aging. Therefore, the variation in levels of professional and reduce the agency’s service quality and effectiveness of the service extensively restricted. 3.2.3 Regulatory mechanism is not perfect At current situation, it has not specifical laws and regulations on the study abroad agency to regulate behaviours they have. At the same time, the management of policies from different departments, regulatory agencies is not clear. It is a more complex work to supervision and management the intermediary services for studying abroad. Too few managers, industry and commerce, are also responsible for public security, there is busy. Three units of the joint action, they often stay in the rectification movement style, and they can not do more frequent, thorough and meticulous work, so that the management is difficult to place. 3.3Causes of the problems 3.3.1Legal system is not perfect Currently, the state has not the development of social intermediary organizations and the general considerations of unified planning, there is no national authority in charge of social intermediary organizations and coordination of departments, to study abroad agency management and macro-control weaknesses still exist. Government lack of studying abroad Pan strictly regulate intermediary management, law degree is not high. Market economy is the legal economy, study abroad agency to rely on laws and regulations to locate and act. However the legal management of oversea study agencies has a far way from the establishment of socialist market economy. 3.3.2The lack of high-quality personnel Oversea study agency is a strong professional service, foreign language level requirements high. Thus, requiring that their employees must have a high quality of cultural knowledge, good professional service and knowledge of international practice. However, there are talents in this area obviously can not keep up the situation and development needs: the quality of personnel is not high, the shortage of professionals. 4.0 Recommendation At present, more and more people choose to go abroad, the oversea study agent play an important role in China. However, there are still exit the problems which mentioned above. So some measures must be taken such as effectively strengthen the supervision and management of education agents’waste, further improve the advertising review and investigation, to increase the intensity modulation of employees’ education and training, improve relevant laws and regulations to standardize and restrain intermediary acts. 5.0 Conclusion Whit the boom of study abroad set off, oversea study agency has become an indispensable institution to student. It provide professional guidance, provide legally qualified schools, help design individual study plans and so on. However, there are still some problems that can damages the interests of consumers. When people choosing the oversea study agencies, both advantages and disadvantages should be considered. Whit the sound of legal system and the development of market economy in China, problems in the intermediary agencies of study abroad will be solved. Their business will be more and more standardized. 6. Reference Gousheng Li, 2006-10-29, Study abroad at one’s own expenses intermediaraes’problems and countermeasures. Junrong Yan, 2001-12-4, Education agents, you play what role

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Accidents Essays - AIB, Aviation Accidents And Incidents

Accidents Essays - AIB, Aviation Accidents And Incidents Accidents Aircraft Investigation Each mishap has their own characteristics and there is no substitute for good old-fashioned common sense and initiative. Each wrecked aircraft has its own story to tell if properly investigated. However Air Force guidelines are quick to point out that investigators in their eagerness seek out the causes, often ignore safe investigation practices and common safety precautions. Air Force Investigators are maybe in even more difficult position due to the hazards that are unique to the military war fighting machines, Ill discuss a few of these hazards briefly before I get into the steps of Air Force accident investigations. Munitions Extreme care must be given to the munitions that may have been on board the aircraft. Just because the ammunition appears to be damaged beyond being dangerous the slightest amount of static electricity from clothing may detonate munitions. Before starting an investigation of any kind, obtain the list of munitions aboard and have the explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) team remove or inert them. Again eagerness must be controlled and situational awareness must be exercised to be on the lookout for those munitions that may not have been recovered. Also, though tedious, the locations of all munitions need to be noted, as they will hold clues as well. The ejection seats can also present extreme dangers to untrained and careless investigator. Toxins Hydrazine. Its a word that strikes fear in all that are familiar with it. New generation aircraft such as the F-16 use hydrazine for emergency power supplies. It looks like a clear oily substance that smells like ammonia. Some of the effects hydrazine can have on the human body include: liver damage, blindness, skin burns, and prolong exposure may be fatal. Only base bioenvironmental engineers are qualified enough to properly handle it. Materials Also somewhat unique but is gradually finding its way into the commercial side of aviation is the use of high composite materials along with exotic metals used in the effort to not only strengthen, but to lighten the overall weight of the airframe. The composites used with most frequency today are boron, graphite and Kevlar. Each of these materials has their own characteristics and must be handled with care. While in its finished form Kevlar is very stable, boron and graphite must be handled with extreme care to avoid breathing in dust created when the structures become damaged. Boron fibers can pierce through skin and stay imbedded indefinitely and cannot be removed easily causing severe infections. Funding Issues The host base funds all in-house support (except billeting) even if the host base is not assigned to the convening authoritys MAJCOM. In-house support includes administrative support and equipment, work areas, reproduction, and graphics. The MAJCOM or ANG command that possesses the mishap aircraft is responsible for all costs associated with the crash site clean up and restoration. (USAF, 1998) Steps The following are a condensed version of the steps given to the accident board president to help guide them through the process of getting organized and to better use some the broad assets available to the military accident board president, the steps comprise parts of both AFI 51-503 and AFP 127-1. 1. Get organized before running to the smoking hole. a. Find out what was done at the crash site. b. Determine the support needed from the base that owns the aircraft. They will be best informed of the nature of the airframe. 2. Get to know your board members so youll have an idea of their capabilities and how you can best use them. a. If you know a sharp officer or NCO that you would like on the board, ask for them. b. Secure any voice recordings, videotapes and films pertinent to the mishap and be prepared to send copies when requested. 3. Working with the interim board members: a. Secure evidence they captured. They might lose it when they go back to their jobs. b. Have them provide a list of interim board members with their work/home phone numbers. c. Request they discuss with their safety office any glitches they discovered in the unit mishap response plan. d. Ensure a face-to-face hand-off takes place for a positive exchange of information and investigative authority. e. Assess exactly what was accomplished, and what the interim board feels is the next step. 4. Technical assistance/airlift support: a. Request it only

Monday, October 21, 2019

Jericho - The Archaeological Ruin in Palestine

Jericho - The Archaeological Ruin in Palestine Jericho, also known as Ariha (fragrant in Arabic) or Tulul Abu el Alayiq (City of Palms), is the name of a Bronze Age city mentioned in the book of Joshua and other parts of both the Old and New Testaments of the Judeo-Christian bible. The ruins of the ancient city are believed to be part of the archaeological site called Tel es-Sultan, an enormous mound or tell situated on an ancient lakebed north of the Dead Sea in what is today the West Bank of Palestine. The oval mound stands 8-12 meters (26-40 feet) tall above the lake bed, a height made up of the ruins of 8,000 years of building and rebuilding in the same place. Tell es-Sultan covers an area of about 2.5 hectares (6 acres). The settlement that the tell represents is one of oldest more or less continuously occupied locations on our planet and it is currently over 200 m (650 ft) below modern sea level. Jericho Chronology The most widely known occupation at Jericho is, of course, the Judeo-Christian Late Bronze Age one–Jericho is mentioned in both old and new Testaments of the Bible. However, the oldest occupations at Jericho are in fact much earlier than that, dating to the Natufian period (ca. 12,000–11,300 years before the present), and it has a substantial Pre-Pottery Neolithic (8,300–7,300 B.C.E.) occupation as well. Natufian or Epipaleolihic (10,800–8,500 B.C.E.) Sedentary hunter-gatherers living in large semi-subterranean oval stone structuresPre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) (8,500–7300 B.C.E.) Oval semi-subterranean dwellings in a village, engaging in long-distance trade and growing domesticated crops, construction of the first tower (4 m tall), and a defensive perimeter wallPre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) (7,300–6,000 B.C.E.) Rectangular houses with red- and white-painted floors, with caches of plastered human skullsEarly Neolithic (6,000–5,000 B.C.E.) Jericho was mostly abandoned at this timeMiddle/Late Neolithic (5,000–3,100 B.C.E.) Very minimal occupationEarly / Middle Bronze Age (3,100–1,800 B.C.E.) Extensive defensive walls constructed, rectangular towers 15-20 m long and 6-8 m tall and extensive cemeteries, Jericho destroyed circa 3300 cal BPLate Bronze Age (1,800–1,400 B.C.E.) Limited settlementAfter the Late Bronze Age, Jericho was no lo nger much of a center, but continued to be occupied on a small scale, and ruled by Babylonians, Persian Empire, the Roman Empire, Byzantine and Ottoman Empire up until the present day Tower of Jericho Jerichos tower is perhaps its defining piece of architecture. British archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon discovered the monumental stone tower during her excavations at Tel es-Sultan in the 1950s. The tower is on the western fringe of the PPNA settlement separated from it by a ditch and a wall; Kenyon suggested it was part of the towns defenses. Since Kenyons day, Israeli archaeologist Ran Barkai and colleagues have suggested the tower was an ancient astronomical observatory, one of the earliest on record. Jerichos tower is made of concentric rows of undressed stone and it was built and used between 8,300–7,800 B.C.E. It is slightly conical in form, with a base diameter of roughly 9 m (30 ft) and a top diameter of about 7 m (23 ft). It rises to a height of 8.25 m (27 ft) from its base. When excavated, parts of the tower were covered with a layer of mud plaster, and during its use, it may have been completely covered in plaster. At the base of the tower, a short passageway leads to an enclosed stairway which was also heavily plastered. A group of burials was found in the passage, but they were placed there after the buildings use. An Astronomical Purpose? The internal stairway has at least 20 stairs made up of smoothly hammer-dressed stone blocks, each over 75 centimeters (30 inches) in width, the entire width of the passageway. The stair  treads are between 15-20 cm (6-8 in) deep and each step rises nearly 39 cm (15 in) each. The slope of the stairs is about 1.8 (~60 degrees), much steeper than modern stairways which normally range between .5-.6 (30 degrees). The stairway is roofed by massive sloping stone blocks measuring 1x1 m (3.3x3.3 ft). The stairs at the top of the tower open up facing to the east, and on what would have been midsummer solstice 10,000 years ago, the viewer could watch the sunset above Mt. Quruntul in the Judean mountains. The peak of Mount Quruntul rose 350 m (1150 ft) higher than Jericho, and it is conical in shape. Barkai and Liran (2008) have argued that the conical shape of the tower was built to mimic that of Quruntul. Plastered Skulls Ten plastered human skulls have been recovered from the Neolithic layers at Jericho. Kenyon discovered seven in a cache deposited during the middle PPNB period, below a plastered floor. Two others were found in 1956, and a 10th in 1981. Plastering human skulls is a ritual ancestor worship practice known from other middle PPNB sites such as Ain Ghazal and Kfar HaHoresh. After the individual (both males and females) died, the skull was removed and buried. Later, the PPNB shamans unearthed the skulls and modeled facial features such as chin, ears, and eyelids in plaster and placing shells in the eye sockets. Some of the skulls have as many as four layers of plaster, leaving the upper skull bare. Jericho and Archaeology Tel es-Sultan was first recognized as the biblical site of Jericho a very long time ago indeed, with the earliest mention from the 4th century C.E. anonymous Christian traveler known as the Pilgrim of Bordeaux. Among the archaeologists who have worked at Jericho are Carl Watzinger, Ernst Sellin, Kathleen Kenyon, and John Garstang. Kenyon excavated at Jericho between 1952 and 1958 and is widely credited with introducing scientific excavation methodologies into biblical archaeology. Sources Barkai R, and Liran R. 2008. Midsummer Sunset at Neolithic Jericho. Time and Mind 1(3):273-283.Finlayson B, Mithen SJ, Najjar M, Smith S, Maricevic D, Pankhurst N, and Yeomans L. 2011. Architecture, sedentism, and social complexity at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A WF16, Southern Jordan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(20):8183-8188.Fletcher A, Pearson J, and Ambers J. 2008. The Manipulation of Social and Physical Identity in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic: Radiographic Evidence for Cranial Modification at Jericho and its Implications for the Plastering of Skulls. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 18(3):309–325.Kenyon KM. 1967. Jericho. Archaeology 20(4):268-275.Kuijt I. 2008. The regeneration of life: Neolithic structures of symbolic remembering and forgetting. Current Anthropology 49(2):171-197.Scheffler E. 2013. Jericho: From archaeology challenging the canon to HTS Theological Studies 69:1-10.searching for the meaning(s) of myth(s).

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Citizens United - A Primer on the Court Case

Citizens United - A Primer on the Court Case Citizens United is a nonprofit corporation and conservative advocacy group that successfully sued the Federal Election Commission in 2008 claiming its campaign finance rules represented unconstitutional restrictions on the First Amendment guarantee of freedom of speech. The U.S. Supreme Court’s landmark decision ruled that the federal government cannot limit corporations - or, for that matter, unions, associations or individuals - from spending money to influence the outcome of elections. The ruling led to the creation of super PACs. â€Å"If the First Amendment has any force it prohibits Congress from fining or jailing citizens, or associations of citizens, for simply engaging in political speech,† Justice Anthony M. Kennedy wrote for the majority. About Citizens United Citizens United describes itself as a being dedicated to the goal of restoring government to U.S. citizens through education, advocacy, and grassroots organization. â€Å"Citizens United seeks to reassert the traditional American values of limited government, freedom of enterprise, strong families, and national sovereignty and security. Citizens Uniteds goal is to restore the founding fathers vision of a free nation, guided by the honesty, common sense, and good will of its citizens,† it states on its website. Origins of Citizens United Case The Citizens United legal case stems from the groups intention to broadcast â€Å"Hillary: The Movie,† a documentary it produced that was critical of then-U.S. Sen. Hillary Clinton, who at the time was seeking the Democratic presidential nomination. The film examined Clintons record in the Senate and as the first lady to President Bill Clinton. The FEC claimed the documentary represented electioneering communications as defined by the McCain-Feingold law, known as the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002. McCain-Feingold prohibited such communications by broadcast, cable, or satellite within 30 days of a primary or 60 days of a general election. Citizens United challenged the decision but was turned away by the District Court for the District of Columbia. The group appealed the case to the Supreme Court. Citizens United Decision The Supreme Court’s 5-4 decision in favor of Citizens United overruled two lower-court rulings. The first was Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce, a 1990 decision that upheld restrictions on corporate political spending. The second was McConnell v. Federal Election Commission, a 2003 decision that upheld the 2002 McCain-Feingold law banning â€Å"electioneering communications† paid for by corporations. Voting with the Kennedy in the majority were Chief Justice John G. Roberts and associate justices Samuel Alito, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas. Dissenting were justices John P. Stevens, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Stephen Breyer and Sonia Sotomayor. Kennedy, writing for the majority, opined: Governments are often hostile to speech, but under our law and our tradition it seems stranger than fiction for our Government to make this political speech a crime. The four dissenting justices described the majority opinion as a rejection of the common sense of the American people, who have recognized a need to prevent corporations from undermining self-government since the founding, and who have fought against the distinctive corrupting potential of corporate electioneering since the days of Theodore Roosevelt. Opposition to Citizens United Ruling President Barack Obama leveled perhaps the most vocal criticism of the Citizens United decision by directly taking on the Supreme Court, saying the five majority justices â€Å"handed a huge victory to the special interests and their lobbyists.† Obama lashed out at the ruling in his 2010 State of the Union address. With all due deference to separation of powers, last week the Supreme Court reversed a century of law that I believe will open the floodgates for special interests - including foreign corporations - to spend without limit in our elections, Obama said during his address to a joint session of Congress. I dont think American elections should be bankrolled by Americas most powerful interests, or worse, by foreign entities. They should be decided by the American people, the president said. And Id urge Democrats and Republicans to pass a bill that helps to correct some of these problems. In the 2012 presidential contest, though, Obama softened his stance on super PACs and encouraged his fundraisers to bring in contributions to a super PAC that was supporting his candidacy. Support for Citizens United Ruling David N. Bossie, the president of Citizens United, and Theodore B. Olson, who served as the group’s lead counsel against the FEC, described the ruling as striking a blow for freedom of political speech. â€Å"In Citizens United, the court reminded us that when our government seeks ‘to command where a person may get his or her information or what distrusted source he or she may not hear, it uses censorship to control thought,’† Bossie and Olson wrote in The Washington Post in January 2011. â€Å"The government argued in Citizens United that it could ban books advocating the election of a candidate if they were published by a corporation or labor union. Today, thanks to Citizens United, we may celebrate that the First Amendment confirms what our forefathers fought for: ‘the freedom to think for ourselves.’†

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Renault Vehicle Industries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4750 words

Renault Vehicle Industries - Essay Example Agility in the organizational process in responding to market demands can only be achieved through organizational structures, which are well-integrated, less bureaucratic and collectively aligned towards achieving the organizational objectives (Thomson & Strickland 2003). Â  The case study analyses the current issues being faced by Renault Vehicles Industries, (RVI) the French Auto manufacturer with regards to organizational structure and culture. The analysis will take into account the current status of the organization and identify the problem areas being encountered at Renault. The insight gained from the analysis will aid in explaining the past background and how the company has developed to its current stage as well as what the future may hold if the organization proceeds without interventions. Lastly, the analysis will also provide suggestions and recommendations for intervention and create change at Renault to succeed in the ever-competitive field of automobile industry. Â  Renault Vehicle Industries, initially established in 1915 as Berlite was nationalized in 1915 and name changed to Renault in 1978. The company mainly focuses on the manufacturing of heavy goods & transport vehicles and buses. The company’s annual turnover levels are in the range of 25,000 million francs and across Europe, the company holds nearly 10% of market share for heavy goods & Transport vehicle segment. Renault busses and coaches hold over 50% of the market share in France. The company is ranked third in the world market for heavy goods and transport vehicle market. The Venissieux site houses two production facilities, which produce buses and coaches. Little over 5,000 people are employed at the Renault factories and 60% of the workforce is shop floor workers.

Friday, October 18, 2019

MARKETING STRATEGY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

MARKETING STRATEGY - Essay Example The 2008 – 2009 has been one that has been underlined by the adverse effects of the credit crunch. It is at this time that interest rates hit an all time low level. To add to that, the retail customer savings stagnated and in other instances in point of fact more than dwindled. This is a demonstration on how the external environment can adversely affect a business. The credit crunch led to a calamitous fall in the banking image. As a result of these proceedings, retail and investment banking were the biggest causalities. Tough competition in the financial markets also underlies what players in the industry have to navigate through. But the existence of opportunities to grow presents a case for strategising in order to wrest market control or at the minimum remain relevant. The chance to improve does exist, but it all depends on the business leadership. It is for the leadership to take or ignore the opportunities. Growth in higher education is one such opportunity on which the bank should capitalise on. This has been one of the weak points of the bank; failure to expeditiously take up opportunities. Based on these issues, I would propose the diversification strategy in addressing the bank’s developmental agenda. This strategy promises to be the best vehicle for the Central National Bank if it harbours any ambitions of getting out of the mess in which it finds itself. Diversification can be achieved through the initiation of mergers, ventures into provision of new products, an alteration of the bank’s microeconomic policy among other aspects (Beamish and Ashford 2005). From the case study, it is revealed that much consolidation is taking place. This is being done through merging of businesses in the banking industry. A merger gives a company a big advantage because of sharing of several facilities and consequently gaining from the benefits that accrue to economies of large scale

Are we really running out of oil Research Paper

Are we really running out of oil - Research Paper Example The OECD is made up of about 28 countries as of 2010, including countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Korea, Japan, Canada, Germany, France, and Australia. The European Commission also â€Å"participates† in the work of the IEA as written or reflected in the IEA documents. From the perspective of the IEA, the summary situation is that â€Å"global production will peak one day, but that peak will be determined by factors affecting both supply and demand† (IEA, World Energy Outlook 2010 Executive Summary, 6). IEA data and forecasts indicate that oil demand (excludes demand for biofuels as opposed to fossil fuels), will continue to grow steadily to reach 99 million barrels per day (mb/d) by 2035 or 15 mb/d higher from 2009. In the IEA estimate, all of the net growth will come from non-member of the OECD, about half from China alone. The rise in demand from non-OECD member countries will be mainly driven by demand for transport fuels (IEA, World Energy Outloo k 2010 Executive Summary, 6). Given the estimated rise in demand to 99 million barrels per day by 2035, global oil production will only reach 96 million barrels per day (mb/day), 3 mb/d of which will come from gains in processing efficiency (IEA, World Energy Outlook 2010 Executive Summary, 6). ... ation of Petroleum Exporting (OPEC) countries to rise continuously up to 2035 under the â€Å"New Policies Scenario† (IEA, World Energy Outlook 2010 Executive Summary, 6). The increasing production from OPEC will boost OPEC’s share in total world oil production by about one-half (IEA, World Energy Outlook 2010 Executive Summary, 6). Iraq will account for the largest share in the increase of OPEC oil output, â€Å"commensurate with its large resource base† (IEA, World Energy Outlook 2010 Executive Summary, 6). The statements from the IEA suggest that the immediate decreases in output in oil production will be coming from the non-OPEC countries rather than from the OPEC countries. In clarifying what it means by â€Å"global production will peak one day, but that peak will be determined by factors affecting both supply and demand,† the IEA clarified that in the â€Å"New Policies† scenario, total world production does not peak before 2035 (although it will be â€Å"close to doing so†). However, according to the IEA, production can peak at 86 mb/d just before 2020 because of weaker demand that falls briskly thereafter because of lower prices (World Energy Outlook 2010 Executive Summary, 6). The scenario of a weak demand can come about because of environmental concerns related to global warming. In summary, the IEA said that â€Å"if governments act more vigorously than currently planned to encourage more efficient use of oil and development of alternatives, then demand for oil might begin to ease soon and, as a result, we might see a fairly early peak in oil production† (World Energy Outlook 2010 Executive Summary, 6). The IEA strongly emphasized that the early peak in this scenario will not be caused by resource constraints but by dwindling demand and price realignments

Ancient Chinese Contributions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 6

Ancient Chinese Contributions - Essay Example Ancient Chinese has been recognized for a variety of inventions and contributions to mankind. Since ancient periods in China have been categorized according to dynasties, the ten most useful inventions and contributions noted and attributed to Chinese ingenuity and innovativeness are as follows: the building of the Great Wall of China and the multiplication table during the Qin or Ch’in Dynasty; the invention of the compass and paper making during the Han Dynasty; making of tea and matches during the Era of Disunity; making of porcelain during the Sui Dynasty; gunpowder in the Tang Dynasty; and finally, printing and wine making during the Sung Dynasty (Inventions, Innovations and Other Contributions from Ancient China). Of course there are other notable discoveries and contributions during ancient times but these inventions rise above the rest in terms of creating significant impact on the growth and development of civilizations around the world. From among these ten remarkable contributions, one strongly believes that the four most ingenious and innovative are the building of the Great Wall of China, paper making, printing, and the compass. The Great Wall of China has been renowned worldwide as one of the wonders of the world and as such, the building of the wall that reaches an immense length of about 8,850 kilometers or 5,500 miles long (Rosenberg) is a commendable task even to be imagined as such ancient times when materials and labor skills have not even been considered sophisticated or advanced. Paper making was likewise attributed to the ancient Chinese and have provided the impetus for the creation of paper currency and other documents that could be preserved. Due to the discovery, fast amounts of recording and documentation of historical events, famous writings, art works and literary pieces have been effectively archived. Printing, on the other hand, is also a relevant contribution as it

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Managing Financial Resources and Decisions Essay - 7

Managing Financial Resources and Decisions - Essay Example From the above table it is observed that the Casey will be achieving negative cash balance at the end of every month which indicates that the barber shop will be running its business at loss if the above expenses and income are experienced by it for the next 6 months. From the profit and loss account and cash flow budget mentioned in Task 1 it is evident that Casey’s barber shop will be running at huge loss if he does not modify the business structure. The owner should bring in appropriate changes in business so as to earn profit. The owner should increase the working hours from 6 hours a day to 8 hours a day so that the barber shop attends 24 customers a day instead of 18 customers a day. It will bring in revenue without increase in any further cost. Adults are to be charged  £ 25 for the first two months and then  £ 30 for the next 4 months. The children should be charged  £ 15. The table below reflects the changes that are made in order to have postive ending cash balance at the end of every month. The charge of the services should be increased in order to bring in profit at the end of every month in the business. Adults are to be charged  £ 25 for the first two months and then  £ 30 for the next 4 months. The children should be charged  £ 15. The main aim of this section is to compare the financial statements of two listed companies published in their annual reports and examine the financial performance of the companies by comparing the performance of the financial ratios. The two companies that are chosen are ASDA Limited and Tesco Plc. Both the companies are dominating the supermarkets in United Kingdom. The data required for the ratio analysis are collected from the annual reports of both the companies. A comparison is drawn between the two with respect of their performance: liquidity, solvency and profitability. The presentation and the formats of the two company’s

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Crisis Management and Communication Research Paper

Crisis Management and Communication - Research Paper Example It is the moment of uncertainty that best describes a crisis situation. The severity of such crisis varies significantly, with less moderate to severe. The most common aspect of uncertainty pertains to the ethical and moral implications of the organization’s communication strategy during the crisis. The most common aspect of this is who is to be held responsible. Often, organizations fail to address crisis effectively because they have the tendency to engage in blame game which should ideally be the no-go area for organizations during crisis situations. The purpose of communication, or more so â€Å"strategic† communication during times like these, is to mitigate to some extent this form of uncertainty associated with the crisis. The higher the uncertainty associated with finding a solution for the crisis the greater the severity of the crisis (Stephens, Malone, & Bailey, 2005). It is often useful to classify crisis as an event caused by either external factors such as opportunities and threats as well as internal dynamics of the company including strengths and weaknesses. Crisis puts the company’s immediate survival at stake. ... Furthermore, researchers have also delineated on the steps in crisis management and communication, keeping in mind the procedural nature of a crisis situation. In the first stage, the organization gets signs and warning signals pertaining to an upcoming disaster (Stephens, Malone, & Bailey, 2005). In the next stage, organizations often engage in preparation and prevention exercises such as team-building measures as well as employing training measures to deal effectively with the crisis (Stephens, Malone, & Bailey, 2005). In the third phase, the damage is potentially â€Å"contained† or limited by several measures, the most important of which is communication, in order to avert the spillover of damage to other parts of the organization (Stephens, Malone, & Bailey, 2005). In the final phase, the organization recovers from the mishap, which is followed by essential learning in order to avoid the possibility of such a crisis in future (Stephens, Malone, & Bailey, 2005). Communicat ion during crisis situations, therefore, is fundamental to reaching the recovery phase sooner and more safely. The ultimate aim of communication during crisis situation is to frame appropriate public perceptions about the company and to maintain a favorable image of the company in the minds of stakeholders. Communication during these times also serves the purpose of informing, convincing or even motivating stakeholders towards a desired form of action. Another aim of crisis communication is to ensure that the damage is controlled and that the negative impact of the crisis on various environmental elements is minimized. Companies often use this as an opportunity to reinforce and communicate existing values, culture, vision and mission associated with the organizations to the public. As is the

Managing Financial Resources and Decisions Essay - 7

Managing Financial Resources and Decisions - Essay Example From the above table it is observed that the Casey will be achieving negative cash balance at the end of every month which indicates that the barber shop will be running its business at loss if the above expenses and income are experienced by it for the next 6 months. From the profit and loss account and cash flow budget mentioned in Task 1 it is evident that Casey’s barber shop will be running at huge loss if he does not modify the business structure. The owner should bring in appropriate changes in business so as to earn profit. The owner should increase the working hours from 6 hours a day to 8 hours a day so that the barber shop attends 24 customers a day instead of 18 customers a day. It will bring in revenue without increase in any further cost. Adults are to be charged  £ 25 for the first two months and then  £ 30 for the next 4 months. The children should be charged  £ 15. The table below reflects the changes that are made in order to have postive ending cash balance at the end of every month. The charge of the services should be increased in order to bring in profit at the end of every month in the business. Adults are to be charged  £ 25 for the first two months and then  £ 30 for the next 4 months. The children should be charged  £ 15. The main aim of this section is to compare the financial statements of two listed companies published in their annual reports and examine the financial performance of the companies by comparing the performance of the financial ratios. The two companies that are chosen are ASDA Limited and Tesco Plc. Both the companies are dominating the supermarkets in United Kingdom. The data required for the ratio analysis are collected from the annual reports of both the companies. A comparison is drawn between the two with respect of their performance: liquidity, solvency and profitability. The presentation and the formats of the two company’s

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Enterprise Strategy Essay Example for Free

Enterprise Strategy Essay This type of business structure that is E-business is more common in the developed countries than in third class countries; to sell products customers in the comfort of their homes is widespread in these countries, so Forejustin Passman the founder and general manager plans to make widespread this type of business even in a developing country, Botswana. 1. 0 THE entrepreneur 1. 1 The motivation for starting the business Pull factors are exploiting opportunity and a financial incentive whilst the push factor that led him to open the business was threat of unemployment. The pull factors He was pulled into this business because he wanted to exploit an opportunity to sell gadgets such as tablets i. e. Apple’s Ipads, Amazon’s Kindle and Barnes amp;Nobles’ the nook. Consequently he decided to open Group Little, a predominantly virtual company, having little physical presence and high internet presence. After a market research he realised that most gadget stores in Botswana undermine internet trading and he decided to exploit this opportunity. Citing most gadget stores are set up according to a strategy and are purposely designed to make customer experience as pleasant as possible but their websites normally do not have a similar strategy applied to them, as the sites are normally a glorified business card that does not engage visitors and in some cases even harm the business image. Mr Passman was also pulled to gain financial incentive he paid meticulous attention to primary research in order to weigh the benefits, the cost and opportunities of his approach. The push factors The threat of unemployment is the only push factor that influenced Forejustin to start his business. At age 18 he performed poorly in his A-level results which caused him to fail to pursue a business degree at university, other than compromising and pursuing other degree programmes that he lacked interest in he decided to re-sit some examinations. Whilst in wait for examination results he did not want to be considered to be part of the unemployed so he started his company Group Little. 1. 2 Forejustin Passman’s character traits Proactive- he is one of the few people who do not believe in luck, he seeks after opportunities other than wait for them to present themselves to him. He is also quick and decisive, when faced with the dilemma of whether to go into just conventional retailing he decided and to have the virtual retailing, where he has limited physical presence and a fully-fledged internet presence. His logic behind such a decision being that the internet is a necessary portal for success in the 21st century business and beyond. He is regarded by some a restless while he considers himself easily bored because as he says he is easily diverted to the most recent market opportunity. He is especially known as a man who acts and then learns from the outcomes of his action, and thus far his upbeat approach has worked positively to advance the company. Visionary- Mr Passman has and had a clear vision for Group Little; for it to become a household name in virtual companies of Africa and to be an expert in Africa’s virtual market space. He wants Group Little to be benchmarked by any international company exploring to invest in the virtual market place of Africa. Now this visionary flair has positioned him to be always at the right place at the right time and being able snatch opportunities within his vision. 1. MR Passman’s personality type Mr Forejustin Passman is certainly spontaneous. Spontaneous because most of the things he does, he does instinctively. This matches positively with his proactive character trait mentioned previously in section 1. 2. He is a creative, lively and open-minded person. His humorous nature disposes a contagious zest for lif e. Forejustin’s enthusiasm and sparkling energy inspires the team to work harder, his strengths therefore are creative problem solutions, discovering new ways and opportunities, the conceptualization of new ideas on one hand, but not so much his concrete implementation on the other. To compensate for this weakness he has staff of capable colleagues that takes over his concepts and runs with them. Spontaneous is the best classification of Mr Passman, other than classifying him as an introvert or extrovert which is a widely used approach of personality type definition, which in some cases is limiting to define peculiar individuals as Mr Forejustin Passman. 1. 4 Decision making and leadership style Decision making style Forejustin Passman’s decision making style is conceptual. He has high tolerance for ambiguity in that even when he was not sure how Batswana will respond to an e-business he still went on decided to do what he planned. He has a broad outlook in business, with the resident of truth being not enough Batswana are connected to internet currently, he deemed it fit to go ahead because most industries around the world are adopting e-business and even though Botswana is still lagging behind the time is eminent for her as well to join in. His conceptual decision making style is also evident in that he has found a creative way to solve the local problem of segregated demand and supply. Where people in difficult to reach areas have a high quantity demand of some products from businesses yet they cannot reach those businesses to be supplied with what they demand, so he decided the customers will shop in the comfort of their own far away home and he will deliver the products to them. 1. 5 Leadership style Laissez-faire style, he is a leader who has consciously made a decision to pass focus of power to the outsourced employees. He considered since the workforce is already talented and qualified to do the job they must be able to positively exercise judgement to respond to issues. Mr Passman simply sets out the targets and deadlines afterwards he charges the taskforce to do the work that is at hand, he is not very interested in how they do the job he just wants the work to be done in due time. Some have criticised his type of leadership saying he is risking the success of his business by delegating power the employees but according to him this type of environment breeds creativity, and that is what he wants from his team, creative ways to solve problems, which is a direct match to his decision making style he wants them to think like him. 1. 6 Mr Forejustin Passman’s role within the business Forejustin oversees the review of Group Little’s corporate strategy, looks for market opportunities, acquires strategic assets and protects Group Little’s existing competencies. As this organisation is relatively small, Forejustin has adopted this multidisciplinary role. His acquisition of strategic assets is done in order to solidify their position in the market, he cites sometimes organic growth is too slow for the company’s vision therefore acquisition of some assets provides an impetus to desired growth. The staff The majority of his staff is outsourced, the employees are highly knowledgeable about internet business. Being a cheerful entrepreneur he advocates for a cheerful workforce because he believes if employees are happy that drives up productivity which in turn brings healthier profit margins. 1. 7 Entrepreneurial networking Forejustin’s decision to effectively network sprung up in the beginning stages of his business, he wanted a trademark for Group Little and he just happened to remember months earlier he sent his broken computer to some young technicians; one of them named Kabelo had recently graduated from a creative arts university of Limkokwing where he studied graphic designing. He had saved his contacts in case he needed computer help but his contact wound up birthing more than just computer solutions but also a trademark for his business. This was a highlight to Forejustin that networking especially informal networking is a tool for success, his response; * He strikes conversations with strangers, to get any bit of information he can, exchanges contacts with such an individual and then regularly contact that individual until they establish a network that can provide him relevant business information, advice and support services. Chats with movers and shakers of different industries in order to get some referrals and leads. Mr Passman’s formal networks In this the entrepreneur is lacking. He has not signed up to any formal network which means his chances for collaborative opportunities with others are diminished. It is highly unlikely for him to form new business relationships and lastly it is slow to solve problems because there is no access to a si gnificant number of possible solution providers as emphasised by Kay (2010). His professed inhibitors to formal networking are high membership fees of some formal arrangements. He also attributed inflexible structured timetable for some of these formal networks as a major impediment for him join as he prefers groups that are open where he can come on casual ‘drop in’ basis. But considerations are still being made to join the Diamond Trading Company (DTC) network an outlet that informs and organizes exhibitions for small enterprises. 1. 8 Innovation There a certain drivers of innovation that prompted Forejustin Passman to pursue e-business and figure a, is quite very useful in illustrating that. Source: Sheth and Ram (1987) Figure a Because of technological advances, after the internet boom he realised he needed to adopt an approach in business which matches the changes in technology. The change in technology alters the business environment. This then means that threshold competencies and basic resources are redefined, he implication to Forejustin’s company is, whatever used to be basic necessities of successful trading is now redefined to fit the current robust and continually changing business environment. Group Little’s business environment is no longer just about having the right gadgets, it is also about close interaction with customers and widespread, effective marketing therefore Mr Passman had to approach service delivery differently. Competition for selling gadgets has intensified, with Incredible Connecti ons, Hi-Fi, Game and other gadgets stores exerting pressure, Group Little had to distinguish itself by going online. Understanding that service delivery is directly related to the customer’s psyche he found it fit to offer technological products in a technological platform such as the internet which sends a message to customers of technological proficiency. He also had to innovate since customer needs are frequently changing consequently he had to effectively address them. The weakness of his innovative approach Even though innovation is commendable and obtaining ideas from the international front is encouraged it is evident Forejustin Passman has failed to address the contextualization of this worldwide trend. His payment outlets for instance should have been modified to fit the traditional payment outlets other than just adopting the internationally proclaimed payment system PayPal. 2. 0 The enterprise 2. 1 Business strategy According to Meyer (2010) strategy is the direction and scope of an organisation over the long-term. General enterprise strategy Emergent strategy is Group Little’s adopted strategy. Having considered the high turbulence in the industry he trades in Mr Passman decided to use this approach to guide his business. This strategy has been adopted since this industry is uncertainty and innovation based. It allows frequent feedback on the business environment which in turn permits reallocation of resources to address any information that is received about any changes in the business’ external environment. Operations strategy Figure b Source:ibbusinessandmanagement. com(2012) Using Michael Porter’s generic model figure b above, Forejustin has opted differentiation operational strategy. In this strategy unique attributes that are valued by customers and which are perceived to be better than the gadgets of the competition are intensively adopted by Group Little. This company has the following internal strengths to make this differentiation strategy successful; * Highly skilled and creative development team. * Strong sales team with the ability to successfully communicate the perceived strengths of the gadgets The risks linked with this strategy include imitation by competitors and changes in customer tastes. In addition, a range of firms pursuing focus strategies may be able to achieve even greater differentiation in their market segments. 2. 2 E-business As Group Little is a typical example of an e-business it is quite instructive to use the SWOT model to analyse the strengths, weaknesses, opportunity and threats this organisation it has; Strengths Global reach to marketing. Since the web is an international platform Group Little’s marketing is not just limited to local media and advertising opportunities it spreads out to other regions. There is improved customer interaction. The customer and the enterprise meet in the comfort zone of the customer, therefore the customer can openly offer ideas, orders and even complaints all this will better Group Little’s service delivery. Weaknesses Security; customers are always concerned with the integrity of their payments, most shy away from revealing confidential bank information in the web, which costs Group Little significantly. The other weakness is the customer has no idea of the quality and physical condition of the gadgets; it is very common for discrepancies to exist between what sites advertise and the actual product. Opportunities New technologies surfacing could open up internet accessibility in Botswana which will be advantageous to Forejustin’s company since the critics’ argument pivots around this matter. Group Little also has prospects on cutting down local competition. As local competition has not adequately used the online trading space which can give Group Little an online competitive advantage if Forejustin Passman chooses to invest significantly to develop this area. Threats Fraud; given that there are some individuals that are out to deceive for financial gain are always Mr Passman’s concern, they may fake Group Little’s website and deceive the customers. Changes in law and regulation are always a threat. Regulatory authorities to protect customers from fraud they may place laws and regulations that will stifle Group Little’s competitiveness. 2. 3 Organisational culture This has been defined as, a system of shared actions, values and beliefs that develop within an organisation and guides the behaviour. This is as cited by Uhl-Bien et al. (2010). Forejustin Passman has directed Group Little culture, one of the shared values is the ‘no Sunday policy. ’ In this Forejustin has reflected his Christian beliefs and his philosophy of people before profit into the corporation’s culture. His belief in God prompts him to keep the Sabbath which to him is Sunday and his people before profits philosophy leads him to protect their wellbeing by giving them rest on Sunday. Any order placed on Sunday is attended on Monday by rejuvenated and more productive employees. This has its obvious disadvantages such as foregone sales but Mr Passman believes his policy is beneficial to all parties involved. When work is on between Monday to Saturday the team is relaxed and open, this as Forejustin says allows for conception of creative ideas. Any facet that stifles creativity is minimized be it the tangible such as tables or chairs or the intangible aspect like a mental attitude that stigmatizes mistakes. This culture solves two important issues external adaptation, which deals with reaching goals; how to reach those goals and if members have developed this freedom to make mistakes they can effectively guide their day-to-day activities. It also solves the issue of internal integration, members can easily merge and share ideas when mistakes are not stigmatized and this leads to greater productivity. . 4 Critical success factors of his business Branding Forejustin’s Group Little has to create a brand that appeals to the African technologically adept. Now as asserted by Perry (2009) a brand is more than just a corporate symbol it is an intangible asset that provokes emotional responses from individuals which presents a sustainable competitive advantage. This entrepreneur must position his company’s brand to be able to leverage from being one of Botswana’s few companies that are committed to successful internet trading. Little is known of Group Little but this is an incentive not a deterrent because the brand can be driven in any direction that Forejustin sees proper to execute his vision. Even though his company was registered with the Registrar of Companies and Intellectual Property in 2009, not long ago every product and or service he introduces must align to the strategy of the company; he has to monitor Group Little’s identity, as the perception portrayed to customers over these few years is the one that affords the company to leverage on the brand premium. Realising that the company’s brand was its critical success factor efforts to protect his brand symbol from infringement were undertook; he decided to copyright the brand symbol. Distribution Comprehending their need for effective systems, Group Little has rationalized their distribution systems to enhance performance of their products. As an attempt to enhance the logistics execution and capabilities Mr Passman decided to form a synergy with Botswana Couriers. This he decided to do in order to quicken delivery of the gadgets sold, in contrast to sending the orders via Botswana Post with their renowned incompetence he decided to solidify his distribution by having an exclusive agreement with Couriers. As Meyer (2010) asserts exclusive distributor agreements will constitute a major impediment to the distributors if the distributor wants to switch from the commitment. In this synergy Group Little is offered discounts because of the volume of gadgets it trades around the country and basic efficiency in the distribution of the products is greatly enhanced. Technology It seems obvious yet still noteworthy that Group Little has technology as their trading platform has to remain on vigilant and aware of new technology developments. Most gadgets they sell use mobile applications, applications are pieces of software that are designed to fulfil a particular purpose, for Group Little that purpose simply is to make easy access to its website’s content and increase sales, therefore Group Little is in the process of having their own application. The entrepreneur has looked at engaging a company named Bright labs which operates in Tlokweng for the development of Group Little’s very own mobile application this will enable those who have bought these gadgets to also download the application and then browse for more products from Mr Forejustin Passman’s Group Little. 2. 5 Conclusion Forejustin Passman’s Group Little’s performance has been average, but if he can put measures in place to direct its strategy the company will realise its potential to become a benchmark e-business in Botswana and even in Africa. He simply needs to re-assess who he is and what Group Little is, a point of focus (the target market to approach, how he is going to approach that market). In addition he is required to solidify his networks as this is one business competence he has ignored and it will ultimately cost him and his business from growing from being a small medium enterprise to being the envisioned benchmark multinational. Contextualisation of Group Little’s business model also can provide an impetus its success as well, Mr Passman shall consider adopting traditional transaction means in order not to inhibit his business from reaching every possible customer. Bibliography Books 1. Meyer, R, Wit, B, (2010), Strategy-process, content, context an international perspective, 4ed, Hampshire: Cengage learning EMEA 2. Perry, B, (2009), Enterprise operations, Oxford: Cima publishing 3. Uhl-Bien. M, Schermerhorn J. R. , Hunt . J G, Osborn R. N, (2010), Organisational behaviour, Hoboken: John Wiley amp; Sons 4. Kay. F, (2010), Successful networks, London: Kogan Page 5. Yves, L, Goz, G. H, (1998), Alliance Advantage-The art of creating value through partners, Boston: Harvard business School Press. 6. Sugars. B, (2012), Super Size your sales, the entrepreneur, August, p. 2 7. Bessant J, Tidd J,(2011), innovation and entrepreneurship, 2ed, Sussex: John Wiley and sons 8. Moon. R, Gee. S, (2012), Creating business opportunity, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan 9. Mullins L. J, (2010), management amp; organisational behaviour, 9ed, Essex: Prentice Hall Websites 10. Multiply (2012): Spontaneous idealist [online] Available from: http://mirau. multiply. com/jour nal/item/116/My-Personality-Type-Spontaneous ,[ accessed 14 December 2012] Appendix Personal reflection Studying real entrepreneurs and real companies always equips I as the student beyond lecture content. The study of this enterprise and Mr Forejustin Passman was a delight because I got to know interesting real aspects about business, I have learnt when in real business some academic theories will have to be set aside and suspended to deal with the challenges of real business. The more I researched I understood what differentiates successful entrepreneurs and unsuccessful entrepreneurs and that content I learnt were not part of the assignment requisite but I did learn This module lectures are also noteworthy, I figured this was a reiteration of Enterprise anagement I did in my second year, so lectures consisted of emphasis of year two material. Even though the material is more or less the same as of second year the assessment was interestingly structured, it was strategic rather than operational that seems like an obvious comment but this has really marked the difference in our approach. We were no longer just reporting facts, concepts and academic theories we had to apply and use our groomed understanding to critically analyse the business case.